Category Archives: Uncategorized

Honey bees

Honey bees appear to have their center of origin in South and Southeast Asia (including the Philippines), as all the extant species except Apis mellifera are native to that region. Notably, living representatives of the earliest lineages to diverge (Apis florea and Apis andreniformis) have their center of origin there.[8]

The first Apis bees appear in the fossil record at the Eocene–Oligocene boundary (34 mya), in European deposits. The origin of these prehistoric honey bees does not necessarily indicate Europe as the place of origin of the genus, only that the bees were present in Europe by that time. Few fossil deposits are known from South Asia, the suspected region of honey bee origin, and fewer still have been thoroughly studied.

No Apis species existed in the New World during human times before the introduction of A. mellifera by Europeans. Only one fossil species is documented from the New World, Apis nearctica, known from a single 14-million-year-old specimen from Nevada.[9]

The close relatives of modern honey bees – e.g. bumblebees and stingless bees – are also social to some degree, and social behavior seems a plesiomorphic trait that predates the origin of the genus. Among the extant members of Apis, the more basal species make single, exposed combs, while the more recently evolved species nest in cavities and have multiple combs, which has greatly facilitated their domestication.

Vibrators – history

The electric vibrator was invented in the late 19th century as a medical instrument for pain relief and the treatment of various ailments, one account gives its first use at the Salpêtrière hospital in Paris in 1878, with Romain Vigouroux cited as the inventor. English physician and inventor Joseph Mortimer Granville, who also developed an early model, asserted his own priority in the invention and has been described as the ‘father of the modern electromechanical vibrator’.[1] Mortimer Granville’s 1883 book Nerve-vibration and excitation as agents in the treatment of functional disorder and organic disease describes the intended use of his vibrator for purposes including pain relief, the treatment of neuralgia, neurasthenia, morbid irritability, indigestion and constipation.[2] These early vibrators became popular among the medical profession and were used for treating a wide variety of ailments in women and men including hysteria, arthritis, constipation, amenorrhea, inflammations, and tumors; some wounded World War I soldiers received vibrotherapy as treatment at English and French hospitals in Serbia.[3]

1913 advertisement

Vibrators began to be marketed for home use in adult sex shops from around 1900 together with other electrical household goods, for their supposed health and beauty benefits. An early example was the ‘Vibratile,’ an advert for which appeared in McClure’s magazine in March 1899, offered as a cure for ‘Neuralgia, Headache, Wrinkles’. These advertisements disappeared in the 1920s, possibly because their appearance in pornography, and growing understanding of female sexual function, made it no longer tenable for mainstream society to avoid the sexual connotations of the devices.[4]

Om Mani Padme Hum Tattoos

Cuvantul mantra in traducere libera semnifica “protectia mintii” iar mantra se regaseste sub forma unor simboluri care evoca un raspuns spiritual sub forma scrisa, verbala sau cantata. Om Mani Padme Hum este cea mai populara mantra pe care o folosesc pudistii pentru a trage binecuvantarile de la Chenrezig, cea mai puternica zeitate care daruieste compasiunea si faciliteaza reincarnearea. Aceasta mantra/rugaciune este rostita in mod continuu in timpul meditatiei.

Nu existra o traducere clara a acestor cuvinte dar se crede ca ele contin toate invataturile lui Buddha. Desi nimeni nu poate spune ce reprezinta ele, se cunosc interpretarile fiecarei silabe,atfel:

Om: generozitate (purifica egoul si mandria)

Ma: etica (purifica gelozia)

Ni: rabdare (purifica pasiunea si dorinta necumpatata)

Pad: diligenta (purifica ignoranta si prejudecata)

Me: purifica saracia.

Hum: intelepciune (purifica ura).

Tatuajele cu Om Mani Padme Hum sunt mult mai mult decat simple tatuaje sau cuvinte scrise aleatoriu pe corp, ele de cele mai multe ori fac parte dintr-un tatuaj mult mai mare, format dintr-un lotus intreg sau cu petalele divizate. Cand fiecare silaba din aceasta mantra este prezenta, ea atrage ceea ce semnifica fiecare sunet in parte.

A Beginner’s Guide: 10 Tattoo Styles Explained

A Beginner’s Guide: 10 Tattoo Styles Explained

What’s the difference between American Traditional and Neo Traditional? Beginners, explore 10 popular tattoo styles with our useful guide!

1. Traditional

Traditional (also referred to as American Traditional or Old School) is the oldest form of tattooing (after ancient tribal techniques). In the modern world, as we know it, tattooing began with this identifiable style. Solid black outlines, a limited colour palette, less detail and impeccable precision… traditional tattoos stand the test of time.

Popular traditional imagery includes roses, hearts, nautical, eagles, skulls, daggers and women’s heads.

2. Realism

A tattoo that looks exactly like it would in the real world. A fine art skill, realistic tattoos done well look like photographs on the skin. Here, it’s important to have a good photo reference and pick a skilled, well-known artist. Pay as much as you can for a tattoo of this kind – you get what you pay for, and cheap realism and portrait tattoos look whack.


3. Watercolour

Currently very popular, Watercolour tattoos mimic an experimental artistic process – using splashes and streaks of colour to give the impression of paint being used on canvas or paper.

The watercolour effect can be all-encompassing to the design, with no line-work or other styles, but it can also be combined with realism or solid outlines, to form just the background or foreground of a tattoo.

Often bright colours are used and themes of nature.


4. Tribal 

The oldest tattoo style, from ancient times. Nearly always black in colour, often using symmetry and geometrical design. Sometimes un-detailed with block black lines, or like the tattoo below, utilising delicate detail and precision. A good artist will carefully design a piece to compliment the shape of the body, like this one.

5. New School / Nu Skool

Cartoon-like designs influenced by graffiti and hip-hop artistic techniques and styles. Bubble-like designs, bright colours, exaggerated dimensions and features. Popular with popular culture icons and animals.

6. Neo Traditional

Like Traditional, Neo-Traditional tattoos use bold outlines and careful, precise shading. Contrastingly to Traditional tattoos, they are more detailed, more experimental with colour and blending, more dimensional and often brighter – yet often inspired by the 2D layout, limited symbology and specific technique of Traditional tattooing.

Neo-Traditional might also merge different styles together, be elaborate and experimental and often try to be as unique and custom as possible.

7. Japanese

Dating back to 10,000BCE, Japanese tattooing is one of the most sacred tattoo arts. Detailed designs often cover large areas of the body such as the back or the arm. This tattooing style follows a very strict set of artistic rules – positioning, imagery used, direction, colour and more, all adhering to the ancient traditions. Imagery includes cherry blossoms, koi fish, lotus flowers, dragons, war dogs and geishas.

8. Dotwork

Intricate designs that use lots of tiny dots in areas where you might normally shade or use block colour.

9. Geometric

Intricate designs made of shapes that might use symmetry and repetition to create a large design. Alternatively, geometry may be added to a Neo Traditional or other style tattoo.

Often black but may use colour, create a 3D effect or incorporate dot work.

10. Script

Gothic, swirly, intricate fonts are popular but there’s no limit to what font a script tattoo might utilise. A good script artist, like Boz De Niro, will create a completely custom tattoo for you, not use a downloadable font.